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The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to A. The Kingdom of Poland was founded inand in it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in with the Treaty of Versailles. More than six million Polish citizens perished in the war. Poland is a developed market and regional power. It has the eighth largest and one of the most dynamic economies in the European Union simultaneously achieving a very high rank on the Human Development Index.
The country provides free university educationstate-funded social security and a universal health care system for all citizens. The origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans Polanie that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole" field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites Lechiciwhich derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.
During this time, the Lusatian culturespanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement now reconstructed as an open-air museumdating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about BC to AD. Also, recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.
Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s.
Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko Iaccepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland inas the new official religion of his subjects.
The bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. The significance of the event was documented by Gallus Anonymus in his chronicle. InKonrad I of Masoviaone of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights. Inthe Statute of Kalisz or the General Charter of Jewish Liberties introduced numerous right for the Jews in Poland, leading to a nearly autonomous "nation within a nation".
His son, Casimir III reigned —70has a reputation as one of the greatest Polish kings, and gained wide recognition for improving the country's infrastructure. The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military supportthe king made a series of concessions to the nobility, and establishing their legal status as superior to that of the townsmen.
When Casimir the Great died inleaving no legitimate male heir, the Piast dynasty came to an end. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Poland became a destination for German, Flemish and to a lesser extent Walloon, Danish and Scottish migrants. The Black Deatha plague that ravaged Europe from to did not significantly affect Poland, and the country was spared from a major outbreak of the disease.
The partnership brought vast Lithuania -controlled Rus' areas into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for the Poles and Lithuanians, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries. In the Baltic Sea region the struggle of Poland and Lithuania with the Teutonic Knights continued and culminated in the Battle of Grunwaldwhere a Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive victory against them.
The Jagiellon dynasty at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia onwards and Hungary. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar slave-raiding cost Poland-Lithuania one million of its population between the years of and Poland was developing as singletreff bad wildungen feudal state, with a predominantly agricultural economy and an increasingly powerful landed nobility.
The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm parliament intransferred most of the legislative power from the monarch to the Sejm, an event which marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility. Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos Polish Christianity, which resulted in the establishment Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos policies promoting religious tolerance, unique in Europe at that time.
The European Renaissance evoked in late Jagiellon Poland kings Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus a sense of urgency in the need to promote a cultural awakeningand during this period Polish culture and the nation's economy flourished.
Another major figure associated with the era is the classicist poet Jan Kochanowski. The Union of Lublin established the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealtha more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchybut which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament. The Warsaw Confederation guaranteed religious freedom for the Polish nobility Szlachta and burgesses Mieszczanie. Inthe Tsar of Russia paid homage to the King of Poland.
From the middle of the 17th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thereby leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention.
Starting inthe Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising engulfed the south and east, eventually leaving Ukraine divided, with the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, becoming a dependency of the Tsardom of Russia. This was followed by the 'Deluge'a Swedish invasion of Poland, which marched through the Polish heartlands and ruined the country's population, culture and infrastructure—around four million of Poland's eleven million inhabitants died in famines and epidemics throughout the 17th century.
Sobieski's reign marked the end of the nation's golden era. Finding itself subjected to almost constant warfare and suffering enormous population losses as well as massive damage to its economy, the Commonwealth fell into decline. The government became ineffective as a result of large-scale internal conflicts e. Lubomirski Rebellion against John II Casimir and rebellious confederations and corrupted legislative processes.
The nobility fell under the control of a handful of magnatsand this, compounded with two relatively weak kings of the Saxon Wettin dynastyAugustus II and Augustus IIIas well as the rise of Russia and Prussia after the Great Northern War only served to worsen the Commonwealth's plight.
Despite this The Commonwealth-Saxony personal union gave rise to the emergence of the Commonwealth's first reform movement, and laid the foundations for the Polish Enlightenment. During the later part of the 18th century, the Commonwealth made attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing a much improved economy, significant population growth and far-reaching progress in the areas of education, intellectual life, art, and especially toward the end of the period, evolution of the social and political system.
However, as a one-time personal admirer of Empress Catherine II of Russiathe new king spent much of his reign torn between his desire to implement reforms necessary to save his nation, and his perceived necessity to remain in a political relationship with his Russian sponsor.
This led to the formation of the Bar Confederationa szlachta rebellion directed against the Polish king and his Russian sponsors, which aimed to preserve Poland's independence and the szlachta's traditional privileges. Attempts at reform provoked the union's neighbours, and in the First Partition of the Commonwealth by Prussia, Russia and Austria took place; an act which the " Partition Sejm ", under considerable duress, eventually "ratified" fait accompli. Corporal punishment of children was officially prohibited in However, this document, accused by detractors of harbouring revolutionary sympathies, generated strong opposition from the Commonwealth's nobles and conservatives as well as from Catherine II, who, determined to prevent the rebirth of a strong Commonwealth set about planning the final dismemberment of the Polish-Lithuanian state.
Russia was aided in achieving its goal when the Targowica Confederationan organisation of Polish nobles, appealed to the Empress for help. The defensive war fought by the Poles ended prematurely when the King, convinced of the futility of resistance, capitulated and joined the Targowica Confederation.
The Confederation then took over the government. Russia and Prussia, fearing the mere existence of a Polish state, arranged for, and in executed, the Second Partition of the Commonwealthwhich left the country deprived of so much territory that it was practically incapable of independent existence.
Poles rebelled several times against the partitionersparticularly near the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.
But, after the failed Napoleonic WarsPoland was again split between the victorious powers at the Congress of Vienna of However, over time the Russian monarch reduced Polish freedoms, and Russia annexed the country in virtually all but name. Meanwhile, the Prussian controlled territory of Poland came under increased Germanization. Throughout the period of the partitions, political and cultural repression of the Polish nation led to the organisation of a number of uprisings against the authorities of the occupying Russian, Prussian and Austrian governments.
They were joined by large segments of Polish society, and together forced Warsaw's Russian garrison to withdraw north of the city. Over the course of the next seven months, Polish Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos successfully defeated the Russian armies of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch and a number of other Russian commanders; however, finding themselves in a position unsupported by any other foreign powers, save distant France and the newborn United States, and with Prussia and Austria refusing to allow the import of military supplies through their territories, the Poles accepted that the uprising singletreff nierstein doomed to failure.
Upon the surrender of Warsaw to General Ivan Paskievichmany Polish troops, feeling they could not go on, withdrew into Prussia and there laid down their arms. After the defeat, the semi-independent Congress Poland lost its constitution, army and legislative assembly, and was integrated more closely with the Russian Empire.
During the Spring of Nations a series of revolutions which swept across EuropePoles took up arms in the Greater Poland Uprising of to resist Prussian rule. Initially, the uprising manifested itself in the form of civil disobedience, but eventually turned into an armed struggle when the Prussian military was sent in to pacify the region.
Eventually, after several battles the uprising was suppressed by the Prussians, and the Grand Duchy of Posen was more completely incorporated into Prussia. Ina new Polish uprising against Russian rule began. The January Uprising started out as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. However, the insurrectionists, despite being joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and numerous politicians, were still severely outnumbered and lacking in foreign support.
They were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics and failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland, and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement. Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large-scale industrialisation and modernisation programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity.
This was particularly true in Greater Poland, Silesia Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos Eastern Pomerania controlled by Prussia later becoming a part of the German Empire ; areas which eventually, thanks largely to the Greater Poland Uprising of and Silesian Uprisingswere reconstituted as a part of Profile on deutsch-dating.de of bammbamm69 Hannoversch Münden, Niedersachsen, Germany chat and date Second Polish Republicbecoming the country's most prosperous regions.
A total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, anddied. It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflictsthe most notable being the Polish—Soviet War —21 when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsawan event which is considered to have halted the advance of Communism into Europe and forced Vladimir Lenin to rethink his objective of flirt tricks frauen global socialism.
The event is often referred to as the "Miracle at the Vistula". During this period, Poland successfully Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos to fuse the territories of the three former partitioning powers into a cohesive nation state. Railways were restructured to direct traffic towards Warsaw instead of the former imperial capitals, a new network of national roads was gradually built up and a major seaport was opened on the Baltic Coast, so as to allow Polish exports and imports to bypass the politically charged Free City of Danzig.
The inter-war period heralded in a new era of Polish politics. Whilst Polish political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until the First World War, the country now found itself trying to establish a new political tradition.
For this reason, many exiled Polish Watch marriage not dating episode 11 online free CIMdata Commentary: T-Systems Powers Their Cloud-Ba, such as Ignacy Paderewski who would later become prime minister returned home to help; a significant number of them then went on to take key positions in the newly formed political and governmental structures.
As a subsequent result of the Munich Agreement inCzechoslovakia ceded to Poland the small sq mi Zaolzie region. The area was a point of contention between the Polish and Czechoslovak governments in the past and the two countries fought a brief seven-day war over it in On 28 September Warsaw fell. In —41, the Soviets deported hundreds of thousands of Poles. In July the Polish Cipher Bureau had taught Britain and France how to crack German Enigma codeswhich it had been doing since using mathematics and technology such as the Bomba and Zygalski sheets.
Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution in Europe [f] and its troops served both the Polish Government in Exile in the west and Soviet leadership in the east.
Polish troops played an important Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos in the NormandyItalian and North African Campaigns and are particularly remembered for the Battle of Monte Cassino.
During the Battle of Advantages and disadvantages of single party systemsbest free dating site australiaflirten ab 50 kos Polish squadrons such as the No. The Polish Navy protected the Dunkirk evacuation and Atlantic convoys. The wartime resistance movementand the Armia Krajowa Home Armyfought against German occupation.
It was one of the three largest resistance movements of the entire war, [g] and encompassed a range of clandestine activities, which functioned as an underground state complete with degree-awarding universities and a court system.
Secondary motives were to liberate Warsaw before the Soviets, to underscore Polish sovereignty by empowering the Polish Underground State before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control. A lack of Allied support and Stalin's reluctance to allow the 1st Army to help their fellow countrymen take the city led to the uprising's failure and subsequent planned destruction of the city.