Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th—4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation , Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek , Persian , Roman , Arab , Ottoman , and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity , but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.
Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men heritage back to the 6th—4th millennia BCE.
Considered a cradle of civilisationAncient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.
Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men foreign influences, including GreekPersianRomanArabOttomanand Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity Arxb, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Arbas Egypt dates back towhen it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy.
However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the revolutionEgypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic.
In it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republicwhich dissolved in Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social Ara religious strife Dqting political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in, andand occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent revolution and its aftermathto terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisiand was described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.
Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. The large regions of the Sahara desertwhich constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, Dortmujd most spread across the densely populated centres of greater CairoAlexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a wohlhabender mann sucht junge frau power in North Africathe Middle East and the Muslim worldand a middle power worldwide.
There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCa culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain -grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society.
The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for Arzb than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade.
The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about BC. A unified kingdom was founded c. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religionartslanguage and customs.
The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, Arxb. The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about years.
A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The New Kingdom c. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by LibyansNubians and Assyriansbut native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.
Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh wohlhabender mann sucht junge frau, but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa in Persia modern Iranleaving Egypt Wonen the control of a satrapy. A few temporarily successful revolts against the Persians marked the fifth century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.
The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. This Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypthowever, did not last long, for the Persians were toppled several decades later by Alexander the Great. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a centre of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs.
The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII Dortmune, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms from a self-inflicted stab woundafter Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest.
Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men Evangelist in the 1st century. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Sasanian Persian invasion early in the 7th century amidst the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — during which they established a new schüchterner mann flirten province for ten years known as Sasanian Egyptuntil —42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs.
Early in this period, Egyptians began Girs blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. In an army of some 4, men were sent against Egypt by the second caliph, Umar, under the command of Amr ibn al-As.
This Arag was joined by another 5, men in and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on November 8, Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in but was retaken by Amr in In an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed.
From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. The Arabs founded the capital of Egypt called Fustatwhich was later burned down during the Crusades. Cairo was later built in the year to grow to Arav the largest and richest city in the Arab Empireand one of the biggest and richest in the world. The Abbasid period was marked by new taxations, and the Copts revolted again in the fourth year of Abbasid rule. At the beginning of the 9th century the practice of ruling Egypt through a governor was resumed under Abdallah ibn Tahirwho decided to reside at BaghdadDortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men a deputy to Egypt to govern for him.
In another Egyptian revolt broke out, and in the Copts joined with native Muslims against the government. Eventually the power loss of the Abbasids in Baghdad has led for general upon general to take over rule of Egypt, yet being under Abbasid allegiance, the Ikhshids and the Tulunids dynasties were among the most successful to defy the Abbasid Caliph.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of Girlx Fatimid Caliphate. With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynastythe Mamluksa Turco - Circassian military caste, took control about Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks inafter which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions. Portuguese traders took over their trade.
Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluksthe Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries.
Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte see French campaign in Egypt and Syria. After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman TurksEgyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans.
After Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men French were expelled, power was seized in by Muhammad Ali Pashaan Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt.
While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. The introduction in of long-staple cotton ferienwohnung singler marktbreit its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of Meen century, concentrating land ownership and shifting production towards international markets.
Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan —Syriaand parts of Arabia and Anatolia ; but in the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans. His military ambition required him to modernise the country: He constructed a military state with around four percent Arabd the populace serving the army to raise Egypt to a powerful positioning in the Ottoman Empire in a way showing various Dahing to the Soviet strategies without communism conducted in the 20th century.
He introduced conscription of the male peasantry in 19th century Egypt, and took a novel approach to create his great army, strengthening Daging with numbers and in skill. Education and training of the new soldiers was not an option; the new concepts were furthermore enforced by isolation. The men were held in barracks to avoid distraction of their growth as a military unit to be reckoned with.
The resentment for the military way of life eventually faded from the men and a new ideology took hold, one of nationalism rAab pride. It was with the help of this newly reborn martial unit that Muhammad Ali imposed his rule over Egypt. The policy that Mohammad Ali Pasha followed during his reign explains partly why the numeracy in Egypt compared to other North-African and Middle-Eastern countries increased only at a remarkably small rate, as investment in further education only took place in the military and industrial sector.
Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim in Septemberthen by a grandson RAab I in Novemberthen by Said inand Isma'il in who encouraged science and agriculture and banned slavery in Egypt. Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate ina legal status which was to remain in place until although the Ottomans had no power or presence.
The Suez Canalbuilt in partnership with the French, was completed in Its construction was financed by European banks. Large sums also went to patronage and corruption. New taxes caused popular discontent. In Ismail avoided bankruptcy by selling all Egypt's shares in the canal to the British government.
Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government. Other circumstances like epidemic diseases cattle disease in the sfloods and wars drove the economic downturn and increased Egypt's dependency on foreign debt even further.
In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet. Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to seriöse partnervermittlung für frauen kostenlos formation of the first nationalist groupings inwith Ahmad Urabi a prominent figure. Fearing a reduction of their control, the UK and France intervened militarily, bombarding Alexandria and Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel El Kebir.
Inthe Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement. The Khedivate of Dxting remained a de jure Ottoman province until 5 November when it was declared a British protectorate in reaction to the decision of the Young Meh of the Ottoman Empire to join World War I on the side of the Central Powers.
Inthe Protectorate was made Dortmund Arab Women Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Men Arab Dating Arab Girls Arab Men Arabs Men, and the title of the head of state was changed to sultan Arsb, to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in World War I.
Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle, Hussein Kamelas sultan.