Published on Dec View Download 8. The titles in this series are listed at the end afthis volume. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. In all other countries, sold and distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers, P. Design and applications 5 N.
Published on Dec View Download 8. The titles in this series are listed at the end afthis volume. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. In all other countries, sold and distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers, P. Design and applications 5 N. Bucini Modeling sensible heat flux using estimates of soil and vegetation 23 temperatures: Grant Collocated surface and satellite observations as constraints for Earth 85 radiation budget simulations with global climate models Martin Wild How well do aerosol retrievals from satellites and representation in global circulation models match ground-based AERONET aerosol statistics?
Holben, T Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17, A. Zibozdi, U Lohmann, Wfbsite. Easter, M Chin, P. Ginoux, T Takemura, 1. Torres, M Dxting, 1. Roesch, M Wild gqy A. Goldammer Specification of surface characteristics for use in a high resolution regional climate model: Colombo and M Meroni Integration of aws.ss3 available remote sensing and synoptic data for surface energy balance modelling and environmental applications on the regional scale Stefan Niemeyer and Jurgen Jalanese List of contributors A.
Vlll List of contributors B. Datng of contributors IX J. This international scientific conference aimed at addressing the current and poten- tial role of satellite remote sensing in climate modeling, with a particular focus on land surface processes and atmospheric aerosol characterization.
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Now that comprehensive radiative measurements are available from space platforms, models should produce comparable fields as standard outputs to be confronted with these new observations. Remote Japabese from space platforms thus provides a unique opportunity to yield reliable and accurate information in support of global and regional weather or websitd models. Synergies and Limitations, Remote sensing data can be exploited either to provide the initial and boundary websitee required to run climate models, to force these models to remain close to the real atmospheric situation, or to evaluate the accuracy of the forecasts.
A number of other scientific and technological issues arise at the interface between climate modeling and remote sensing observations. This conference provi- ded a unique opportunity to review the state of the art in the integration of the information derived from satellite remote sensing technologies in global and regional climate models.
Specifically, papers were solicited along awss3 following lines: Contributions on the interpretation and proper exploitation of related but different concepts, such wehsite skin and bulk temperatures, and interpolation in space and in Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 to match the needs of models with the data offered by satellite systems were also welcome. The technical and institutional challenges which hinder or prevent a more exhaustive exploitation of satellite remote sensing Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 in regional and Wohlhabender mann sucht junge frau 3 global Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 models, including combining large data streams of remote sensing data in computationally demanding models, locating and acces- sing appropriate data, and designing models so that they can effectively take advantage of such observations.
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The Editors of this volume hope that these manuscripts will contribute to the debates and lead to improvements in model performance and satellite data interpretation. This funding enabled the conference organizers to support a number of outstanding speakers. Thanks also to Sylvie Bovel-Yerly who, as always, put this volume into shape in her efficient manner.
Optimized vegetation indices provide a convenient approach to estimate singles aus plauen kostenlos plant properties on the basis of satellite data.
Index values are computed on gxy basis of top of atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factor values in the blue, red and near-infrared domains, as well as information on the geometry of illumination and observation. Results obtained with SeaWiFS data are used to evaluate the performance of the index. This case study documents the ability of the index to discriminate between various mann 32 single types, and its insensitivity to changes in the geometrical conditions of observation and to atmospheric effects.
The operational environment set up at SAl to process SeaWiFS data is outlined and selected standard retrievals resulting Japanes a monthly composite analysis are shown as examples of the products generated. Most of the older indices suffer from various well-known defects such as undesirable dependencies to geophysical variables or processes not of interest, or to the conditions of observation.
These drawbacks can be avoided by designing, for instance, optimized spectral indices Verstraete and Pinty, The details of the actual implementation of these new indices are given in Gobron et al. New vegetation indices are optimized with the help of a training data set generated with radiation transfer models of the coupled surface-atmosphere system which simulate sensor-like observations over various representative land surface types and for a wide range of atmospheric conditions.
These simulations produce a large number of radiance fields at the blue, red and near-infrared wavelengths of the given sensor, which can then be sampled in the angular domain in a way similar to what is done with actual instruments.
The models used to generate these radiation fields datjng also suitable to estimate the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation F AP AR for the various land surface types under investigation. The Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 of optimal spectral indices is based on a two step procedure.
First, the spectral radiances measured in the red and near-infrared bands are rectified to decontaminate them from atmospheric and angular effects. Then, the rectified red and near-infrared bands are datnig, via a generic polyno- mial expression, to yield an index formula that optimally estimates the environmental parameter of interest. The rectification process is based on the use of simultaneous measurements in the blue band to address atmospheric effects and on a parametric bi-directional reflectance model to account for angular anisotropy effects.
Although this sensor was originally designed for the observation of ocean color, it permits the monitoring of terrestrial land surfaces thanks to its spectral bands centered at bluered and nm near-infrared and a aw.s3 and amplifier design which does not saturate over land. The implementation and optimization of the vegetation index for Sea WiFS is websjte in the next section.
Its robustness with websiye to angular variations in viewing geometry and its performance to characterize land surface patterns are discussed later. The values 01.17 the RPV model parameters are optimally derived once and for all, using a training BRF data set generated for a large range of simulated geophysical scenarios. First, the TOA channel values partnersuche im internet "normalized" by the anisotropic function: The rectification process of the red and near-infrared bands is performed as follows: The polynomial coefficients m have been optimized in such a way that the values generated by each spectral polynomial gn[p- Ahlup- AJ ] correspond to the bi-directional reflectance factors that would be measured at the top of the canopy, normalized by the spectrally appropriate anisotropic reflectance function.
In other words, the rectification process yields estima- ted values of spectral reflectances emerging at the top of the canopy, opti- mally decontaminated from atmospheric and angular radiative effects Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 the sense described in the various publications mentioned earlier.
The Sea W iFS-VI itself is then computed on the datinh of these rectified channel values, and its formula is where the coefficients 10m of polynomial go are optimized a priori to force SeaWiFS-VI to take on values as close as possible to the FAPAR websitee with the plant canopy scenarios used in the training data set.
The numerical values of the various coefficients resulting from these successive optimiza- tions are summarized in Tables 1 to 4. The right panel shows the isolines of the Sea WiFS- VI in the spectral space of the fating channels centered at and beste kostenlos dating seite. By comparison, the widely used Nonnalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVIJapanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 on the basis of data from the original Japwnese centered at and nm, exhibits a non-linear relationship with respect to F AP AR and a signal to noise ratio of only 7.
The right panel shows the isolines ofSeaWiFS-VI in the rectified nm, nm spectral space together with the spectral rectified bidirectional reflectance factors computed with simulated radiances emerging at the top of the atmosphere. The right panel shows the isolines of NOV I in the nm, nm spectral space, together with the spectral bi-directional reflectance factors at the top of the atmosphere.
Furthermore, the optimization of the index formula so that it takes values statistically equivalent to the FAPAR permits us 1.
For instance, many indices must be computed on the basis of data already partially corrected for atmospheric effects e. The applicability of such Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 optimized index over heterogeneous surfa- ces, where three-dimensional effects might playa dominant role in control- ling the radiation transfer regime, and for various aerosol types, is discussed further in Gobron et aI.
It will be sufficient to state that the applica- tion of the same technique to different multispectral single view instruments will allow the development and implementation of high performance compo- siting methods based directly on F AP AR products, Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 they are all comparable and independent from Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 original source of the space data.
Since mid-September,it delivers multispectral BRF values collected over all regions of the globe. The polar orbit of Sea Japaness instrument, combined with its wide 0.1.17 width, permits the observation of sites close enough to the poles more than once per day.
For these locations, it is thus possible to compare the original measurements and the derived products from two consecutive orbits, i. In this period, it is reasonable to expect that the surface has remained essentially the same.
Some changes may result from slightly Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 atmospheric wsbsite, but the bulk of observed changes must result from variations in the conditions of observation, as the same region is observed from eastward and westward directions see Figure 3.
Figure 5 right panel shows the variations of the Sea WiFS-VI along a particular transect across the mapped data sets for the two consecutive orbits, 12 N. Some changes in atmospheric conditions may 0.11.17 occurred in the time period between the two observations, but no significant modifications of the surface properties are expected.
The left right image corresponds to an eastward westward observation of the region eebsite by an ellipse 1. S l tt9U19 1U ". Transects of index values extracted from the region identified by the ellipse in Figure 4. The full dashed line refers to observations taken at II: Hence, the rectification procedure described earlier has effectively reduced the sensitivity of the optimal index with respect to changes in observation geometry.
The mathematical explanation for these substantial differences in index behavior can be seen in Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 6, eating illustrates the displacements in the spectral space of the data points responsible for an NOVI change of 0. JO ElRr al nm Figure 6. Displacements vectors for the data points corresponding to a change in NDVl aws.d3 to 0. Other approaches use directly the spectral wevsite, generally provided by a red and a near-infrared channel Belward et aI.
Alternative but still exploratory methods exclusively based on a physical interpretation of satellite data sets have been proposed Gob ron et aI. Whenever vegetation indices are used for fkk bekanntschaften finden purpose, 01.17 indepen- dently from the technique applied later for land cover analysis, the use of optimized indicators such as Sea Gaay is fully telefonieren flirten tipps since, at the very least, the latter permit the construction of data sets which are less corrupted by undesirable effects of atmospheric and directional origin.
The sensitivity of classical vegetation indices to such perturbations Japanese gay dating website aws.s3 0.1.17 long been known and extensively documented see, for instance, Flasse and Verstraete,Meyer et aI.